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Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 2003.
DYNAMICS OF HUMAN CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT TRACKED USING CORTICAL SURFACE MAPPING AND LONG-INTERVAL SERIAL MRI
Nitin Gogtay MD
, Leslie Lusk
, Kiralee M. Hayashi
, Jay N. Giedd MD
, Liv Classen PhD
, Cathy Vaituzis
, Tom F. Nugent III
, Jonathan Blumenthal MA
, Christine N. Vidal
, Arthur W. Toga PhD
, Judith L. Rapoport MD
, and Paul M. Thompson PhD
1. Child Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, Bethesda, MD,
2. Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Dept. Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
We report the first quantitative time-lapse movie of human cortical development, reconstructed from serial brain MRI scans of children aged 4-21. Prior MRI studies of total gray matter (GM) volumes in each lobe revealed a nonlinear pre-adolescent increase followed by loss. To create spatially detailed 3 dimensional (3D) maps of these dynamic processes, we applied novel cortical pattern matching algorithms to longitudinal brain MRIs, to reveal the anatomical sequence of cortical development. Fifty-four 3D (1mm isotropic) T1-weighted fast SPGR MRI scans were acquired from 13 normal children and adolescents (age: 3-19 years), scanned repeatedly every 2 years (with 3 or 4 serial scans per subject). 3D cortical surface models were extracted from spatially registered, tissue-classified scans. Thirty-eight sulcal curve landmarks were delineated on each brain hemisphere. 3D maps localizing brain changes were derived using high-dimensional elastic deformation mappings to match gyral anatomy across subjects and time. A quadratic statistical model, with random effects, was fit to the profile of gray matter density against time, at each of 65,536 cortical points. The resulting fitted model was animated to create a time-lapse movie. This revealed significant regional heterochronicity in GM maturation across the brain surface. GM loss appeared first in dorsal parietal and primary sensorimotor regions near the interhemispheric margin, and spread laterally and caudally into temporal cortices and anteriorly into dorsolateral prefrontal areas. The posterior-to-anterior sequence was visualized bilaterally and reinforces earlier findings of late frontal and temporal maturation. This heterochronous gray matter loss may be attributable to synaptic pruning and dendritic remodeling. It suggests differential maturation of cortical regions or alteration in white matter volume with ongoing myelination.
Support Contributed By: NIMH Intramural Funding,EB01561,RR00865
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Paul Thompson, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Neurology
UCLA Lab of Neuro-Imaging and Brain Mapping Division
Dept. Neurology and Brain Research Institute
4238 Reed Neurology, UCLA Medical Center
710 Westwood Plaza
Westwood, Los Angeles CA 90095-1769, USA.