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Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 2003.
Neurological and Psychiatric Conditions
Addiction and Drugs of Abuse
METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED DEFICITS IN THE HUMAN HIPPOCAMPUS DETECTED USING NOVEL COMPUTATIONAL ANATOMICAL MAPPING ALGORITHMS AND MRI
Paul M. Thompson
; Kiralee M. Hayashi
; Michael S. Hong
; David H. Herman
; Sara Simon
; Arthur W. Toga
; Edythe D. London
1. Dept Neurol/LONI, 2. Psychiat/Biobeh Sci/Med/Molec Pharm, UCLA, L.A., CA, USA
ABUSE, DRUG, IMAGING, HIPPOCAMPUS
We report the first quantitative anatomical maps of the chronic effects of methamphetamine (MA) use on the human hippocampus. Applying a novel anatomical mapping technique to brain MRI scans, we detected a systematic profile of hippocampal abnormalities in chronic MA users that correlated with memory impairment. Anatomic models of the hippocampus were derived from high-resolution volumetric T1-weighted brain MRI scans of 22 chronic methamphetamine users and 21 matched healthy controls (age: 35.3+/-7.8SD and 31.9+/-6.7 yrs.; 25 men/18 women). Hippocampal atrophy was mapped using a 3D distance field to measure the distance of each surface boundary point to a 3D medial curve derived for each individual hippocampus. Hippocampal surface meshes were spatially registered and averaged across subjects in each diagnostic group. Shape differences and spatial patterns of volumetric loss were visualized using color-coded statistical maps. On average, MA users had 7.6% smaller hippocampal volumes than controls (p<0.04) on the left (2369.5+/-85.8SE mm
v. 2563.1+/-71.1) and 7.0% smaller on the right (2513.5+/-92.7 mm
v. 2701.5+/-94.2). Reductions in left, right (and total) hippocampal volume correlated significantly with poorer memory performance on a Word Recall test (p<0.03,0.04). Additional statistical maps revealed left hippocampal regions where localized atrophy correlated specifically with lower Word Recall test performance (p<0.005). Both groups showed hippocampal volume asymmetries (R>L; p<0.05). No total cerebral volume or global gray matter deficit was found, suggesting that MA may be particularly neurotoxic to the medial temporal lobe, inducing neuroadaptive changes and/or cell death. These MRI-based maps suggest that chronic methamphetamine use causes brain structure deterioration that directly links with worsening memory performance.
Support Contributed By: DA50038,EB01561,RR00865
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Paul Thompson, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Neurology
UCLA Lab of Neuro-Imaging and Brain Mapping Division
Dept. Neurology and Brain Research Institute
4238 Reed Neurology, UCLA Medical Center
710 Westwood Plaza
Westwood, Los Angeles CA 90095-1769, USA.